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    Molybdenum

    Molybdenum (Mo) is the first choice for managing challenging thermal applications because of high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and mechanical strengths at elevated temperatures applied in vacuum/inert furnaces, as well as heat sinks for electronic chips. Additionally, molybdenum’s good electrical properties have resulted in application in microelectronics as thin film transistor in flat panel displays and electrode for photovoltaic.

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    Niobium

    As the lightest of the refractory metals, niobium is a highly sought-after material with applications in aerospace, electronics, nuclear power and defense. In addition to its high strength, ductility, heat resistance, and comparatively low density; niobium also exhibits superconductivity at cryogenic temperatures, and is used to manufacture superconducting magnets for medical and research applications.

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    Tantalum

    Tantalum (Ta) is an essential element for various sectors in the modern electronics market. One of the rarest elements on earth, tantalum is used in enormous quantities in both pure and alloy forms. Alloys, such as tantalum-3wt%tungsten (Ta3W), are important due to their higher strength and superior corrosion resistance compared to pure tantalum.

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    Tungsten

    Tungsten (W) is an extremely versatile metal that has been adopted at industrial scales in a diverse range of markets. It can be manufactured into metal parts in both pure and alloyed forms. It occurs in the earth’s crust at approximately 0.0064% by weight and is primarily extracted from the ores wolframite and scheelite.

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