Hot Zones

APPLICATION

High Temperature Processing

MARKET SEGMENT

Industrial Processing

MATERIALS

Mo30W, MoCu, TZM, MoTi, MoLa, MoW, Ta, EBM Ta, Ulta76, Ultra 76 Plus, TaW, W, WHA

ADVANTAGES

These high temperature materials are characterized by their high thermal and electrical conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and excellent strength and stability at temperatures above 2,000°C.

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Hot Zones

The furnace industry has seen a remarkable growth in the production of custom-made, high temperature vacuum or controlled (inert) atmosphere furnaces for growing sapphire crystals used in manufacturing of LEDs. These furnaces have unique and demanding hot zone designs for melting alumina in crucibles for precise, highly controlled crystal growth.

The hot zones in sapphire growing furnaces and sapphire annealing/post processing use H.C. Starck Solutions molybdenum and tungsten materials and fabricated products for furnace components and fixtures.

Molybdenum and Tungsten Hot Zones

These high temperature materials are characterized by their high thermal and electrical conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and excellent strength and stability at temperatures above 2,000°C.

Whether by KY, EFG, CZ, or HEM-like methods (GTAT, CHES, and VHGF) or post processing annealing, H.C. Starck Solutions is well versed in these different sapphire crystal growth and processing methods and supplies engineered product solutions for all technology platforms.

Customer specific furnace components and fixtures for high temperature furnaces are uniquely designed and supplied by H.C. Starck Solutions.

 

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Heat Sinks

APPLICATION

Heat Management

MARKET SEGMENT

Industrial Processing, Electronics, Aerospace & Defense

MATERIALS

Wcu, MoCu, CuMoCu

ADVANTAGES

High-temperature heat sinks are innovative devices that regulate the temperature of electronic systems. Low-power electronics typically use common and cost-efficient alloys that demonstrate good thermal conductivity. Aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) are two of the most ubiquitous metals used in heat sink applications. They are ideal for their lightweight properties and high rates of thermal conductivity, but they cannot reliably diffuse the volumes of heat generated by high-power electronic devices.

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Composite alloys using a refractory metal bonded with copper exploit the outstanding thermomechanical properties of both materials, enabling the fabrication of high-temperature heat sinks for advanced electronics markets. H.C. Starck Solutions specializes in the fabrication of heat sinks with finely-tailored material ratios; providing solutions to demanding applications in the electronics industry.

Refractory Composites for Heat Sinks

H.C. Starck Solutions has decades of experience in the development of advanced materials for demanding thermal management applications. In tandem with the challenging dual trends of device miniaturization and increased functionality, the electronics industry consistently requires innovation when it comes to cooling. Materials must dissipate heat faster and more efficiently with a smaller component footprint.

Molybdenum- (Mo) and tungsten- (W) copper alloys rise to the challenges of thermal management in advanced electronics applications. H.C. Starck Solutions offers both molybdenum and tungsten composites with tunable ratios of refractory to copper to provide the optimal intersection between low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal conductivity. These are essential properties for regulating the heat generated from dense, high-performance electronic devices.  

H.C. Starck Solutions offers low-density molybdenum-copper (MoCu) for heat sink applications, using a molybdenum skeleton infiltrated with copper at ratios of approximately 70:30 (Mo:Cu). This low-density composite is suitable for the most demanding electronics applications and is approved for military and aerospace applications. Tungsten-copper (WCu) composites are also available, with similarly high thermal properties, exceptional machinability, and varying ratios of tungsten to copper available on request. Contact a member of the H.C. Starck Solutions team to learn more.

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Heating Elements

APPLICATION

Heat Management

MARKET SEGMENT

Industrial Processing

MATERIALS

Mo30W, MoCu, TZM, MoTi, MoLa, MoW, Ta, EBM Ta, Ulta76, Ultra 76 Plus, TaW, W, (W, Ni, Fe)

ADVANTAGES

Our innovative materials improve cycle-time and maintain temperature uniformity with no carbon contamination, less rejection of components, better handling and reduced production cost compared to graphite and ceramics for a wide spectrum of metal injection molding applications. Recrystallization and High-Temperature Warpage Resistance. MoLa alloys have great formability at all grade levels when compared to pure molybdenum in the same condition.

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Each quotation will be unique to the customer requirements so please give as much information in the contact form as possible, this will enable us to get the most accurate price back to you.


 

Heating Elements

H.C. Starck Solutions molybdenum is a superior, pure and alloyed refractory material for heat treating medical, aerospace, defense and automotive products in high temperature furnaces that include medical devices, aircraft and aerospace components, nuclear fuel pellet production, and high pulse magnet research applications. Our innovative materials improve cycle-time and maintain temperature uniformity with no carbon contamination, less rejection of components, better handling and reduced production cost compared to graphite and ceramics for a wide spectrum of metal injection molding applications.

For higher temperature heat treating applications such as hardening or brazing, molybdenum is the preferred heating element material. For specialized heat-treating applications above 1,482 °C (2,700 °F), refractory metals such as molybdenum, tantalum or tungsten are good choices. Other processes such as low pressure vacuum carburizing use graphite or silicon carbide elements.

Almost all high-temperature vacuum furnaces are electrically heated. Resistance heating elements are constructed from refractory metals in a variety of styles. Today all high-tech metallurgy technology operates in vacuum atmosphere with high temperatures from 1,150 oC up to 2,800 oC.

Recrystallization and High-Temperature Warpage Resistance

Molybdenum-lanthana (MoLa) alloys are one type of oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum containing molybdenum and a very fine array of lanthanum trioxide particles. This combination creates extraordinary characteristics of the material, which demonstrate resistance to recrystallization as well as high-temperature warpage. Molybdenum-lanthana is an ideal material for applications requiring dimensional stability and strength at temperatures above the capabilities of either pure molybdenum or molybdenum TZM alloy.

H.C. Starck Solutions manufactures MoLa alloys in three levels of doping with lanthanum trioxide: 0.3 weight %, 0.6 weight % and 1.1 weight %. The trioxide particles stabilize the grain structure of the material creating very beneficial high temperature performance. The unique H.C. Starck Solutions doping process of introducing the oxide particles to the molybdenum matrix is key to the excellent properties obtained, and differentiates H.C. Starck Solutions from other manufacturers of similar materials. In addition, the doping process maximizes the homogeneity of the lanthanum oxide dispersed in the molybdenum matrix.

Benefits of H.C. Starck Solutions MoLa Alloys

MoLa alloys have great formability at all grade levels when compared to pure molybdenum in the same condition. Pure molybdenum recrystallizes at approximately 1,200 °C and becomes very brittle with less than 1 % elongation, which makes it not formable in this condition.

MoLa alloys in plate and sheet forms perform better than pure molybdenum and TZM for high temperature applications. That is above 1,100 °C for molybdenum and above 1,500 °C for TZM. The maximum advisable temperature for MoLa is 1,900 °C, due to the release of lanthana particles from the surface at higher than 1,900 °C temperature.

The “best value” MoLa alloy is the one containing 0.6 wt % lanthana. It exhibits the best combination of properties. Low lanthana MoLa alloy is an equivalent substitute for pure Mo in the temperature range of 1,100 °C – 1,900 °C. The advantages of high lanthana MoLa, like superior creep resistance, are only realized, if the material is recrystallized prior to use at high temperatures.

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Glass Melting Electrodes

APPLICATION

Glass Melting

MARKET SEGMENT

Industrial Processing

MATERIALS

Mo, Mo30W, MoZr02, coated Mo

ADVANTAGES

Higher energy efficiency, lower capital cost/unit of capacity, more control over applications. Fewer environmental emissions less dependence on radiant heating

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Each quotation will be unique to the customer requirements so please give as much information in the contact form as possible, this will enable us to get the most accurate price back to you.


 

Glass Melting Electrodes

Superior Products for Critical Glass Operations

To improve the glass industry’s critical applications in melting, homogenizing, feeding and shaping of glass products, H.C. Starck Solutions offers superior products and services:

  • Molybdenum Glass Melting Electrodes (GME)
  • Mo Sheet and Plate for Tank Reinforcement
  • Oxidation Protective Coating
  • Tubular Targets for Large Area Coating
  • Recycling

H.C. Starck Solutions molybdenum glass melting electrodes (GME) provide the industry with superior quality and the highest product standards for efficient glass melting and electric boosted melting. The high temperature strength and rigidity of molybdenum electrodes, plus the inherent electrical properties of molybdenum, provide maximum operating efficiency. The exceptional purity level of H.C. Starck Solutions molybdenum electrodes (99.95 % minimum) achieves outstanding resistance to chemical corrosion, degradation and minimizes detrimental glass discoloring.

We offer a variety of electrodes for the most demanding glass melting processes:

  • Standard and tapered threads including standard metric threads
  • GMEs from 1.25″ (32 mm) to 8″ (203 mm) in diameter
  • Machined or centerless ground surfaces for assurance of concentricity and straightness
  • Custom fabricated top mounted electrodes and bi-metallic
  • Uniform recrystallized grains for creep resistance
  • High purity (99.95 % minimum)
  • Bubble free, low carbon electrodes

Molybdenum is the “BEST” Choice

H.C. Starck Solutions molybdenum is the “best” choice for electric heating in the glass melting process:

  • Excellent strength and stability at temperatures over 2000 °C
  • High thermal and electrical conductivity
  • Low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)
  • Resistance to corrosion
  • Minimizes detrimental glass discoloring
  • Good machinability

Traditional and Premium Electrodes

H.C. Starck Solutions offers our high purity molybdenum (Mo) and premium molybdenum-zirconium (MoZrO2) glass melting electrodes. Available coated and uncoated with conventional threads and tapered threads for ease of installation.

Glass Melting Electrode Chemical Characteristics1)

Chemical compositions of molybdenum powders for glass melting electrodes with minimum and maximum limits are as follows:

HIGH PURITY MOLYBDENUM ELECTRODES

Element Standard
Mo min. 99.95 %
C max. 0.005 %
Ca max. 0.003 %
Cu max. 0.002 %
Fe max. 0.005 %
Mg max. 0.001 %
Mn max. 0.001 %
Ni max. 0.0015 %
Sn max. 0.003 %

Mass fraction in %
1) Information on testing methods available upon request.

 

PREMIUM MOLYBDENUM ZIRCONIUM ELECTRODES

Element Standard
Mo (By Difference) min. 98.50 %
Mg max. 0.001 %
Mn max. 0.001 %
Ni max. 0.002 %
Al max. 0.002 %
Cu max. 0.002 %
Pb max. 0.002 %
Ti max. 0.002 %
Ca max. 0.003 %
Si max. 0.003 %
Sn max. 0.003 %
C max. 0.005 %
Fe max. 0.005 %
Cr max. 0.005 %
Zr 1.2-1.4 %

 

Maximum variations from straightness will be 0.030 inch per foot (2.50 mm per meter). Maximum variation in cut lengths will be +1/4“, -0 inch (+6.35 mm, -0 mm).

Special tolerances available upon request.

U.S. and European standard and special threads are available on either or both ends.

GMEs Produced by Powder Metallurgy

H.C. Starck Solutions glass melting electrodes (GME) are manufactured from pure molybdenum and supplied to customer requirements by forging and machining.

Structure 

Glass melting electrodes will normally be shipped as stress relieved. Material can be supplied in the re-crystallized condition upon request.

Dimensional Tolerances
Diameter Diameter Variation Out-of-Round
Inches mm Inches mm Inches mm
1 1/4 31.7 +/- 0.015 ± .38 0.015 0.38
1 1/2 38.1 +/- 0.015 ± .38 0.020 0.51
2 50.8 +/- 0.030 ± .76 0.025 0.63
2 1/2 63.5 +/- 0.030 ± .76 0.025 0.63
3 76.2 +/- 0.040 ± 1.0 0.035 0.89
4 101.6 +/- 0.040 ± 1.0 0.050 1.27

Density

p ≥ 10,2 g/cm³

Structure

The material can be offered as forged.

Ultrasonic Test

All H.C. Starck Solutions Hermsdorf glass melting electrodes (GME) are inspected by ultra-sonic test according to DIN EN 583.

Dimensions and Tolerances

The material can be supplied in the following standard diameters:

  • 32.0 mm (1 ¼“)
  • 50.8 mm (2“)
  • 63.5 mm (2.5“)
  • 76.2 mm (3“)
  • 101.6 mm (4“)
  • 127.0 mm (5“)
  • 152.4 mm (6“)

Tolerances: +/- 0.5 mm in lengths up to 2.5 m. Other diameters are possible according to customer request.

Straightness

Maximum variations from straightness will be 0.030 inch per foot or 1.5 mm / m. Maximum variation in cut lengths will be +1/4”, -0 inch. Special tolerance on request.

Threading

U.S. standard and special threads are available on either or both ends.

Surface Condition

Glass melting electrodes will be supplied with centerless ground or machined surfaces of 128 micro inch or better. Minor surface imperfections may be removed by conditioning while maintaining the dimensional tolerance.

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Furnace Boats

APPLICATION

High Temperature Processing

MARKET SEGMENT

Industrial Processing

MATERIALS

Mo30W, MoCu, TZM, MoTi, MoLa, MoW, Ta, EBM Ta, Ulta76, Ultra 76 Plus, TaW, W, (W, Ni, Fe)

ADVANTAGES

Refractory furnace boats are widely employed to house intermediate or finished goods when they are subjected to high-temperature processes such as annealing and sintering. These containers are engineered for excellent dimensional stability, retaining their shape at ambient and process temperatures with good resistance to creep deformation to ensure long-service over multiple processing cycles in heat treatment applications.

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Each quotation will be unique to the customer requirements so please give as much information in the contact form as possible, this will enable us to get the most accurate price back to you.


H.C. Starck Solutions has almost 100 years’ experience in the development of furnace assemblies and components with superb refractory metals and alloys.

H.C. Starck Solutions key materials in furnace boat manufacturing include, but are not limited to:

  • Pure Molybdenum (Mo) and alloys such as arc-cast molybdenum 30% tungsten (Mo30W), molybdenum-lanthanum (MoLa), molybdenum-tungsten (MoW), and titanium-zirconium-molybdenum (TZM).
  • Pure and electron beam melted (EBM) tantalum (Ta) and its alloys such as Ultra 76, Ultra 76 Plus, and tantalum-tungsten (TaW).
  • Tungsten (W).

Refractory Furnace Boats for Thermal Processing

Whether customers are looking to process large components in high-temperature vacuum furnaces, run large-volume production for brazing parts in inert atmosphere furnaces, or anneal highly-regulated end-products to critical specifications, H.C. Starck Solutions can provide value-added product solutions. With a wide choice of refractory metals and technical alloys available for manufacturing furnace boats to custom specifications and geometries, H.C. Starck Solutions can reliably provide containment products for thermal processing in a choice of demanding application areas.

Molybdenum is the material of choice for furnace boat manufacturing, with exceptional retention of its mechanical properties at continuous annealing temperatures exceeding 800°C (1472°F). This applies for various molybdenum alloys, including specialty TZM. H.C. Starck Solutions designs furnace boats to satisfy specific application requirements and can provide novel material solutions with distinct considerations for low adhesion, abrasiveness, chemical cross-reactivity, and more.

If you would like to discuss the fabrication of tailored furnace boats for your furnace application and design, simply contact a member of the H.C. Starck Solutions team today with your query.

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Evaporation Boats

APPLICATION

High Temperature Processing

MARKET SEGMENT

Industrial Processing

MATERIALS

Mo, Mo30W, TZM, MoLa, MoW, Ta, W

ADVANTAGES

REQUEST A QUOTE

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Each quotation will be unique to the customer requirements so please give as much information in the contact form as possible, this will enable us to get the most accurate price back to you.


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Chemical Etched/Chemical Milled/Photo-Etched Parts

APPLICATION

Micro Machining

MARKET SEGMENT

Additive Manufacturing, Industrial Processing, Aerospace & Defense, Electronics, Medical

MATERIALS

NiMoNi, Mo, W

ADVANTAGES

Molybdenum, by buffering silicon against damaging thermal expansion whilst providing a contact of low electrical and thermal resistance, has an important part to play in determining the reliability of semiconductor devices. By selecting appropriate surface coatings, the bulk properties of molybdenum can be used to full advantage without the problems associated with the chemistry and metallurgy of its surface.

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Within H.C. Starck Solutions electro-plating processes are finely tuned to ensure consistent and high quality results. Adhesion and integrity are vital to the reliability of semiconductor devices, and all coatings are diffusion bonded to the molybdenum by sintering under selected time – temperature cycles. The inter diffusion of substrate and coating then guarantee the adhesion of the surface layer, interracial and intergranular oxides are dispersed, the surface layer is annealed and consolidated and the exposed surface is cleaned and degassed. These are all ideal preparations for solder-wetting, electrical contact or corrosion protection. For soldering and alloying applications, excellent wetting and adhesion can be obtained with any hard or soft solder, eliminating the need for expensive and capricious special solders which are highly sensitive to conditions and can require unnecessarily high temperatures.

Pressure contact devices benefit from the use of discs coated to optimise tribiological and electrical contact properties, and modern techniques permit 100% adhesion of these coatings whilst providing less than one micron flatness deviation.

Coatings can be supplied on one, both, or all sides of the product and our technical staff are always available to advise the best coating for your application.

Example coatings and applications for Molybdenum

COATING / THICKNESS APPLICATION
Nickel 1-2 microns Pressure Contact (or light duty soft soldering). May be base layers for precious metal in these applications.
Nickel 5 microns Solder wetting A firmly bonded base layer whose resistance to passivation may be enhanced by further layers (see below).
Nickel 25 microns Solder wetting and etch resistance an economically applied layer, it retains a solderable surface after heavy etching and also facilitates re-work of failed devices.

Nickel 5 microns +

Gold 1-2 microns

A) solder wetting     B) Electrical contact
C) Etch resistance   D) Au-sieutectic bonding

Nickel 5 microns +

copper 5 microns

Solder wetting for soft soldering
Nickel 5 microns +
gold 0.5 microns +
silver 5 microns
Solder wetting An intermediate gold layer enhances adhesion at high temperature.
Nickel 1-2 microns +
Copper 50-100 +
Nickel 3-5 microns
Superior multi layer system to Cu-Mu-Cu composites used for PCB heatsinks and hybrid ciruit substrates. Offering high integrity diffusion bond avoiding the problems of interfacial contaminant leaching.
Gold (alone) Excellent protective layer which can be applied without heat treatment to produce extremely flat discs for pressure-assembly applications.
Rhodium 0.3 microns A) Electrical contact Very low, stable electrical contact resistance and excellent tribological properties make Rhodium an ideal pressure-contact coating.
B) Solder wetting Wetted by both aluminum-based and silver-based solders.
Ruthenium 0.3 microns Same application as Rhodium with the advantage of being significantly cheaper
Platinum 0.5 microns +
silver 5 microns
Spacecraft Solderable non-magnetic coating with excellent electrical properties
Electroless Nickel* High uniformity of thickness with excellent chemical and physical properties. Particulary beneficial when coating complex parts.
*Not an electrolytic process. Deposition is dependant on autocatalytic effect.
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Crucibles

APPLICATION

Semiconductor, Chemical Processing Equipment

MARKET SEGMENT

Electronics, Industrial Processing

MATERIALS

Mo, TZM, MoLa, Ta, W

ADVANTAGES

Low thermal creep, low reactivity with melt (contamination), high temperature strength, good thermal conductivity.

  • excellent thermal shock and corrosion resistance
  • very low wettability of non ferrous metal melts
  • increased productivity
  • reduction of machine down time

REQUEST A QUOTE

Please fill in the boxes on the contact form and a member of the team will contact you directly for a quotation.

Each quotation will be unique to the customer requirements so please give as much information in the contact form as possible, this will enable us to get the most accurate price back to you.


Crucibles

H.C. Starck Solutions produces high tech ceramics StarCeram® A, StarCeram® AT and StarCeram® S. All materials are characterised by excellent thermal shock and corrosion resistance as well as very low wettability of non ferrous metal melts. Aluminum Titanate shows excellent insulating properties. To meet our customers requirements, we offer combined development- and design engineering work. Furthermore we provide an opportunity for the manufacture of prototypes as well as the production of single parts and small batches.

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